There are many ways to identify what values are being represented in a story. These can range from the intentions of the author to the treatment of the characters. In The Giver, for example, we can identify three sources of professional values and ethical behavior in the community. You can also identify these elements by reading news stories carefully. If you study Fiddler on The Roof, for example, you can identify the importance of preserving innocence.
Take note of the main idea after you have finished reading a story. The main idea should be summarized in a few sentences. The main idea is the big picture concept underlying the story. Some stories are easy to understand, but others are harder to decipher. To make it easier, you can consider the main idea in one to two sentences. Once you have outlined the main idea, you can compare that idea to other stories.