How do I cite primary sources?
You can use information from primary literature as a direct quotation or as an indirect quotation or paraphrase in your academic work. All sources used in the text must be marked with a direct reference in the text and an entry in the bibliography.
How do I quote what has already been quoted?
If you want to quote a passage of text that already contains quotation marks, put the quote in single quotation marks. You mark your quote as usual with double quotation marks. In this way you can make it clear which quote comes from you and which one you have adopted.
What is primary literature?
Primary literature: This means first-hand information. These can be the results of scientific work and research. Secondary literature: Here the publication is no longer from a single source, but created on the basis of the primary literature.
What counts as secondary literature?
Secondary literature therefore refers to specialist and non-fiction literature that deals with the original primary literature. An interpretation of a poem by Goethe z. B. is considered secondary literature.
How can you quote indirectly?
In the case of indirect quotations, the source is only reproduced accordingly. It is important to ensure that your analogous rendition is not too similar to the original source. The indirect quotation is correctly quoted in your text by placing a “cf.” for “comparison” in front of the reference in your reference.
When is a quote indirect?
In addition, a direct quote must be in quotation marks. Indirect quotations are used when foreign ideas are adopted but not used in the same wording in the bachelor thesis, master thesis or doctoral thesis. The original text is therefore only reproduced accordingly.
When do you write cf. when quoting?
The abbreviation see in front of the source indicates that this information does not come literally, but in accordance with the meaning of the source listed. That means you can make a comparison between your work and the original source.
When should you quote directly?
When to quote, when literally? A passage is reproduced analogously if the exact wording is irrelevant. Literally one quotes where the wording itself plays an important role, where one cannot or is not allowed to say it in one’s own words, where there is a special term; e.g. also a statement that supports your own position.
When does a quote have to be indented?
The writing trainer for academic and professional writing. 184.108.40.206 Longer quotations should be indented. Verbatim quotations that are longer than two lines can – even if they are integrated quotations – be clearly set apart from the rest of the text by adding e.g.
When is it a quote?
Basically: every thought that does not come from the author of the homework but from someone else must be identified. It is irrelevant whether you cite a foreign author directly (literal quotation) or indirectly (analogous quotation).
How to quote literally?
In the case of a direct quotation, the sentence must be taken over literally. Even spelling mistakes are taken over. In the case of a literal quotation in, the sentence is always in quotation marks. This approach is perfect for examples or definitions in your bachelor thesis.
Is a translation a direct quote?
A literally translated source may be used as a literal quotation (i.e. with quotation marks). Sometimes it is not easy to translate verbatim. The alternative is indirect speech (without quotation marks, with subjunctive) or paraphrasing – your own summary based on the original.
How do you mark a direct quote?
You take direct quotations directly from the original source that you want to quote. The quotation is always in quotation marks and depending on which citation you use, the source is given in brackets or in a footnote at the bottom of the text.
Is a translation primary literature?
The translation of primary literature is also considered primary literature. The reason for this is that the statement of the primary literature is not changed. Secondary literature, on the other hand, is created on the basis of primary literature.
How do I quote correctly in English?
In English, the following quotation marks are used both at the beginning and at the end of a quotation: “…”. If you want to leave out less important sections (e.g. subordinate clauses) of a statement when quoting, use two square brackets with three points in them: […].
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