What does studying mean to me?
The word study comes from the Latin word studere and means to strive for something, to do something eagerly, to deal scientifically. In addition to the formal requirements, completing a degree requires a lot of personal initiative.
What do you do in microbiology?
In microbiology, methods of cytology (science and study of cells), genetics, biochemistry, ecology and systematics are used. Due to the small size of the microorganisms, microscopy and methods for their cultivation play an important role.
What is meant by the term microbiology?
Microbiology researches the various microorganisms. Microorganisms are tiny creatures that are invisible to the human eye, but are essential for many everyday processes. Bacteria and fungi play an important role in our daily lives.
What could be examined microbiologically?
In order to unmask a pathogen as the cause of a disease, a microbiological examination is necessary. A distinction is made between direct detection methods and indirect detection methods.
Can a virus be detected?
The genome of viruses (DNA or RNA) can be isolated from infected cells and detected using molecular biological methods. Using the PCR (polymerase chain reaction), the smallest amounts of virus nucleic acids can be detected directly in the test material.
What does sensitive to antibiotics mean?
Sensitive (S): A bacterial strain is considered sensitive to a specific antibiotic if it is inhibited in vitro by a concentration of this active ingredient that is associated with a high probability of therapeutic success.
How long does an antibiogram take?
After completion of the bacteriological analysis of a sample, the isolated strains are discarded. Therefore, the laboratory must be informed in good time whether MIC determinations should be carried out. Exception: isolates from blood cultures and liquor are kept for 3 months. Duration of the investigation: 24-48 hours.
When is an antibiogram made?
An antibiogram is recommended prior to any antibiotic therapy. However, in the case of infections requiring therapy, the treatment should be carried out parallel to the preparation of an antibiogram in order not to delay the necessary antibiotic therapy.
What is MIC?
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) (English MIC for Minimal Inhibitory Concentration) is a term from biology. It describes the lowest concentration of a substance at which the growth of microorganisms cannot be perceived with the naked eye.
How do you test antibiotic resistance?
The determination of antibiotic resistance, if it is to be done accurately, is time consuming. The gold standard is bacteriological tests. The bacteria are cultivated in Petri dishes after the addition of different antibiotics. If a bacterial lawn grows, this is a sure sign of resistance.
How long does it take to do a urine culture?
In the laboratory, the urine sample is placed on a nutrient medium on which the bacteria contained in the urine multiply rapidly (urine culture). The determination of the amount of bacteria, the type of bacteria, the antibiogram and thus the result of the urine culture are usually available after 24-48 hours.
What are antibiotic resistant bacteria?
Antibiotic resistance refers to properties of microorganisms such as bacteria or fungi that enable them to weaken or completely neutralize the effect of antibiotically active substances.
What are resistant bacteria?
Multidrug resistance means that bacteria have become insensitive to several antibiotics that are needed to treat infections. The bacterium can have a resistance mechanism that works with many different antibiotics.
Why are resistant bacteria dangerous?
If bacteria develop resistance to different antibiotics, we speak of multi-resistant germs. These are particularly dangerous. A large number of the well-known antibiotics can hardly harm them. The result: longer and significantly more severe disease progression, which can even be fatal.
How does bacterial resistance come about?
Sometimes bacteria acquire resistance by exchanging small rings of DNA (or plasmids) with each other. This happens both among bacteria of the same species and among bacteria of different species.
How does antibiotic resistance come about?
Antibiotic resistance arises primarily because antibiotics are not used correctly, for example: antibiotics are taken too frequently, too briefly or in too low a dose. Antibiotics are used even though they do not work, for example in viral infections.
How is a bacterium formed?
The original soup simmers like in a saucepan. The first long-chain molecules enclose free amino acids – prototypes of a cell. It still takes a while before the work in these inclusions is coordinated like in a factory. 3.5 billion years ago, simple bacteria emerged.
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