What is oxidative phosphorylation?
Oxidative phosphorylation is a biological process that occurs in all aerobic organisms. It is part of the energy metabolism and is used to generate energy in the form of ATP.
What is chemiosmosis?
Chemiosmotic coupling or chemiosmosis is a mechanism in which transport processes on biomembranes are coupled with central chemical metabolic processes.
What happens to NADH in the respiratory chain?
Complex I of the respiratory chain accepts electrons from NADH and transfers them to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q). This is done in 2 steps. Complex I contains flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as a prosthetic group. In the first step, NADH + H+ donates its two electrons to FMN.
How many protons for an ATP?
The ATP synthase has a different translation ratio than the proton pump ATPases. The latter pump about two protons to the outside for each ATP consumed. With ATP synthase, on the other hand, the energy of an ATP molecule would be distributed over three to four protons.
How much ATP does a NADH give?
Proton and ATP yield of the respiratory chain 2.5 ATP are synthesized per NADH + H+ and 1.5 ATP per FADH2.
How much ATP is produced in the respiratory chain?
Respiratory chain: From the total of 10 NADH+H+ + 2 FADH2, 3 x 10 ATP are formed, or actually the values are somewhat lower, with odd values (per mole of NADH+H+ 2.5 moles of ATP; per mole of FADH2 1.5 moles of ATP ). processes of cellular respiration.
How is ATP formed in the respiratory chain?
The protons trapped here cannot diffuse back on their own, but only through a special enzyme, the ATP synthase, which acts as a ‘gatekeeper’ in the inner cell membrane. It lets the protons pass in a controlled manner and uses the released energy to produce ATP.
How many mitochondria are in a cell?
A particularly large number of mitochondria are found in cells with high energy consumption; these include muscle cells, nerve cells, sensory cells and egg cells. In heart muscle cells, the volume fraction of mitochondria reaches 36%.
How much ATP is made during glycolysis?
Energy balance of glycolysis So 2 ATP are consumed and 4 ATP are formed. So the total gain per glucose molecule is 2 ATP. In addition, 2 NADH + H+ are formed under aerobic conditions.
How much ATP is produced in the citric acid cycle?
When a molecule of glucose is completely oxidized, a total of about 38 molecules of ATP are formed, two in glycolysis, two in the citric acid cycle and 34 in oxidative phosphorylation.
How much ATP is produced during lactic acid fermentation?
As with other lactic acid bacteria, the two molecules of glyceraldehyde phosphate are converted to lactic acid, the second end product of fermentation, with four molecules of ADP being phosphorylated to form ATP. The net energy yield is 2.5 molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose.
How much ATP from 1 mole of glucose?
If glucose is available as the starting substance, there are 30 (32) moles of ATP per mole of glucose. Aerobic oxidation is characterized by the fact that the hydrogen obtained from the nutrients is transferred to oxygen and the energyless compounds water and CO2 are formed in this reaction.
How much energy is in a mole of glucose?
The aim of cell respiration is to generate energy in the form of ATP from glucose. Breaking down one mole of glucose yields 35-38 moles of ATP. 30 kJ of energy can be calculated per ATP: 38 * 30 kJ = 1140 kJ per mole of glucose.
What substance is glucose broken down into during glycolysis?
During aerobic glycolysis (oxygen presence), a glucose molecule with 6 carbon atoms is split into two pyruvate ions with 3 carbon atoms, with energy gain in the form of ATP. Pyruvates are the anions of pyruvic acid, which are further utilized in the citric acid cycle.
Which metabolic pathway is used to generate energy with the highest ATP yield?
However, the respiratory chain provides the largest part of the ATP yield by oxidation of the hydrogen atoms bound to the hydrogen carriers NAD and FAD with oxygen (O2).
How much energy in 1 mole of ATP?
adenosine monophosphate (AMP). In each case, about 32.3 kJ/mol or 64.6 kJ/mol of energy is released. This released energy enables work to be carried out in the cells.
Which product of cellular respiration contains the carbon atoms from broken down glucose?
For their energy supply, cells absorb glucose (dextrose), which is completely broken down into carbon dioxide and water in the cytoplasm and in the mitochondria of eukaryotes (living beings whose cells have a cell nucleus).
Is cellular respiration exothermic or endothermic?
The energy-rich nutrient glucose is oxidized with the powerful oxidant oxygen. This strongly exothermic reaction is coupled with the formation of approx. 38 ATP molecules as an energy carrier.
Is oxidation exothermic or endothermic?
Combustion is a redox reaction that releases energy in the form of heat and light, i.e. exothermic. In general usage, the term refers to the oxidation of a material with oxygen with the formation of a flame (fire).
What is the difference between exothermic and endothermic?
We show the definition and some examples! A reaction is considered exothermic if the products have a lower enthalpy than the reactants. In the endothermic reaction, the energy level of the starting materials is lower than that of the end materials. In the case of the exothermic reaction, it is exactly the opposite.
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