How does an infectious disease work?
An infectious disease is preceded by an infection (contamination) with pathogens. These penetrate the human organism and multiply there. They can be transmitted from one organism to another.
What is meant by source of infection?
Sources of infection (pathogen reservoir) can be animals, people, contaminated food, bodies of water and objects. The pathogens spread from the source of infection.
What are the routes of infection?
What are the routes of infection? Intestinal (enteric infection) Mouth (faecal-oral infection, e.g. through contaminated drinking water) Skin (percutaneous infection) Mucous membranes (permucosal infection) Respiratory tract (inhalation infection) Sexual organs (genital infection) Urinary tract (urogenital infection)
What are Infectious Disease Examples?
Infectious diseases are diseases that are transmitted by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses or fungi… Common infectious diseasesColds, sinusitis.Acute bronchitis.Typical pneumonia (pneumonia)Atypical pneumonia (e.g. ornithosis, Legionnaires’ disease)Flu.
What are the most common infectious diseases?
Viral diseases (e.g. hepatitis, AIDS, cold viruses, herpes) and bacterial infections (e.g. tuberculosis or diarrhea) are the most common infectious diseases.
What are bacterial diseases?
But diseases such as tuberculosis, whooping cough, scarlet fever or urinary tract infections are also caused by bacteria. Some infections, such as diarrhea or pneumonia, can be caused by both viruses and bacteria.
What beneficial bacteria are there in the human body?
However, most bacteria live in the gut, mostly in the large intestine. There they break down food residues and thus support digestion. Beneficial intestinal bacteria such as lactic acid and bifidobacteria can help to displace disease-causing bacteria.
What diseases are transmitted by parasites?
In many cases, pathogens are behind it, which are transmitted from an animal to humans. Such diseases are referred to as zoonoses; the most well-known include bird flu, swine flu, rabies, Lyme disease, salmonellosis and malaria.
Which intestinal germs are there?
The four most dangerous intestinal germsCampylobacter. With 70,000 cases nationwide last year, infections with this germ are the most common notifiable intestinal disease transmitted through food – and the trend is rising. salmonella. EHEC. Listeria.
Which germs cause diarrhea?
In short: Disease-causing intestinal bacteria can lead to diarrhea and vomiting (“gastrointestinal flu” = gastroenteritis). Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Campylobacter and Aeromonas are often to blame for the symptoms.
Which bacteria can cause diarrhea?
Most often, diarrhea is the result of infection with viruses, most commonly the highly contagious norovirus and rotavirus. A gastrointestinal infection (gastroenteritis) can also be triggered by bacteria such as salmonella or campylobacter.
Which resistant hospital germs are there?
What hospital germs are there Hospital germ MRSA. Staphylococcus aureus is a particularly feared bacterium. Hospital germ VRE. Enterococci such as the bacterium Enterococcus faecium are harmless in themselves. Hospital germ ESBL.
Which multi-resistant germs are there?
The most common multidrug-resistant pathogensMRSA. MRSA is the abbreviation for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and refers to a bacterium that is insensitive to the methicillin group of antibiotics. AER. VRE stands for vancomycin-resistant enterococci. ESBL. cMRSA.
How is a hospital germ identified?
Treatment of hospital germs So that an infection can be unequivocally proven, appropriate samples must be taken and examined in the laboratory. In practice, however, this is still happening hesitantly.
Which nosocomial infections are there?
The most common microorganisms causing nosocomial infections include: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus species, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Candida, Clostridium difficile.
What are the most common nosocomial infections?
Urinary tract infections are among the most common nosocomial infections. In non-surgical disciplines, they are the most common type of nosocomial infection.
What is a nosocomial infection?
A nosocomial infection is an infection that patients acquire in connection with a medical measure that has taken place, for example, in hospitals, care facilities or in outpatient practices.
What is not a cause of nosocomial infection?
About 71 percent of nosocomial infections are caused by bacteria, while viruses account for about 21 percent. The rest is accounted for by fungi and parasites.
How does a nosocomial infection develop?
A nosocomial or nosocomial infection is an infection that was not present or foreseeable at the time of admission to the clinic; it only develops in the hospital. Many people carry multi-resistant pathogens on their skin, in their upper respiratory tract or in their intestines.
How to prevent nosocomial infections?
difficile, it is recommended to first disinfect the hands to kill the vegetative cell form and then wash the hands briefly and thoroughly to reduce the spore form as much as possible (e7). Hand disinfection is a key element in preventing nosocomial infections.
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